Student Learning Objectives


Student Learning Objectives by Major

Africana Studies, Art & Art History, Astrophysics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biology, Business Management, Chemistry, Classical Civilizations, Classical Languages, Dance, Economics, English-Literature, English-Creative Writing, French, German Studies, History, International Relations, Mathematics, Mathematics-Economics, Mathematics-Physics, Music, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Physics, Political Science, Psychology, Public Health, Religion and Social Justice, Religious Studies, Sociology and Anthropology, Spanish, Theatre, Women's Studies

Africana Studies

Students graduating with an Africana Studies major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • apply appropriate theoretical and methodological perspectives for understanding the African and African American experiences as well as the African diasporic experience in Europe, North and South America, and the Caribbean;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the historical dimensions of the African and African diasporic experiences as well as the political, social, economic, and cultural forces that have shaped these experiences;
  • demonstrate specific understanding of the experiences of black women as an integral component of Africana Studies;
  • apply the research skills necessary for scholarly inquiry in Africana studies;
  • apply the writing, organizational, and argumentative skills required for the effective presentation of scholarship;
  • demonstrate command of a body of knowledge within a particular area of Africana Studies.

Art and Art History

Because we consider studio art and art history to be complementary and interrelated fields, these fields share many student learning objectives. Art history majors will concentrate more often on situating works within the literature on their chosen topics and within the field more generally. Studio artists will focus more often on developing technical skills, producing artist statements, and contextualizing their projects within contemporary practices.

Students graduating with an Art History or Studio Art major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate written communication skills (use appropriate sentence structure and vocabulary, organize ideas to support a position, identify a subject and formulate a thesis, document sources according to accepted professional style);
  • demonstrate critical thinking skills (compose thorough visual analyses, analyze works for medium and subject, analyze scholarly arguments, translate concepts across fields or mediums);
  • demonstrate oral communication skills (organize an oral argument in logical sequence, use works of art effectively, give and receive constructive feedback during peer reviews and critiques, demonstrate professional demeanor, speak clearly in a well modulated tone, target communication for a specific audience, exhibit good listening skills);
  • demonstrate process and practice skills (demonstrate knowledge of materials; integrate knowledge, practice, and application; take responsibility for direction of education; articulate areas of future development or inquiry);
  • embrace experiential learning and take responsibility for education (attend events at the Dalton Gallery or other campus events; participate in activities off-campus with artists, galleries, museums, and other venues; connect with the larger art world regionally, nationally, and internationally; articulate paths for future development of individual research).

Astrophysics

Students graduating with an Astrophysics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • solve fundamental problems of classical and modern physics and astrophysics, using the necessary mathematical skills;
  • apply principles of physics to problems relating to planets, stars, galaxies, and cosmology;
  • write basic computer programs as well as employ astronomical software tools;
  • conduct laboratory experiments and astronomical observations using modern telescopes, instrumentation, computers, or simulations;
  • plan and carry out professional astronomical observations, including calibrating digital images;
  • retrieve, organize and analyze scientific information in tabular and graphical formats;
  • present scientific results, including their historical contexts, in clear written and oral language.

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Students graduating with a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate knowledge of scientific principles that apply to biochemistry and molecular biology;
  • demonstrate the laboratory and computational skills necessary to conduct research in biochemistry and molecular biology;
  • critically analyze the primary literature in the field and communicate scientific information clearly and persuasively;
  • apply critical thinking and problem solving skills to the disciplines of and issues relating to biochemistry and molecular biology.

Biology

Students graduating with a Biology major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a broad, sound understanding of major biological principles;
  • demonstrate the skills required for biological inquiry as well as for their specific area of biological study. These include the ability to use the technical instruments appropriate for specific areas of biological study: a microscope, pH meter, pipettes, centrifuges, analytical balances, spectrophotometers, electrophoresis systems, and field equipment;
  • demonstrate the ability to undertake systematic scientific inquiry for learning and problem-solving;
  • demonstrate critical thinking skills when investigating scientific questions, reports and claims;
  • demonstrate the ability to communicate scientific information clearly and persuasively in both written and oral formats;
  • employ quantitative skills related to studying and solving biological problems;
  • use computational skills to solve problems relevant to biological investigation, including those associated with biochemical practices, genetics, physiology and ecological study.

Business Management

Students graduating with a Business Management major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • think analytically about organizational problems and solutions;
  • think creatively about organizational problems and solutions;
  • identify and critique assumptions about human organizing;
  • understand the processes by which knowledge about organizations is produced;
  • understand how the structuring of knowledge about organizations privileges and marginalizes different stakeholders;
  • assess personal strengths and weaknesses;
  • understand and interact effectively with other people;
  • formulate and support written arguments;
  • communicate orally about organizations and organizing.

Chemistry

Students graduating with a Chemistry major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a thorough and broad understanding of the principles, techniques and applications of modern chemistry;
  • demonstrate the laboratory and computational skills necessary to conduct research in chemistry;
  • critically analyze the primary literature in the field and communicate scientific information clearly and persuasively;
  • apply critical thinking and problem solving skills to the disciplines of and issues relating to chemistry;
  • be prepared for post-baccalaureate pursuits such as graduate school in chemistry or employment in chemistry or chemistry-related professions;
  • demonstrate the ability to participate and perform in situations, either professional or non-professional, requiring knowledge or skills relevant to the chemical sciences.

Classical Civilization

Students graduating with a Classical Civilization major from Agnes Scott College will demonstrate:

  • Advanced competence in one classical language, with appropriate use of resources such as grammars, dictionaries, and commentaries, both print and web-based. This competence includes the ability to translate texts and situate them within their literary and historical contexts, both in writing and speaking.
  • Concise and thoughtful presentation both orally and in writing of literary and historical analysis. This includes identifying primary sources of information about Greece and Rome, recognizing and articulating the challenges of using these sources, accurately describing the contributions of other scholars, and integrating their perspectives as appropriate into one’s own original research.
  • General knowledge of the intellectual, cultural, historical, and political developments of Greece and/or Rome, their roles in creating a “globalized”   society, and their contributions to ancient and modern social constructions, especially of race, class, and gender.
  • Awareness of their own intellectual process, strengths, and weaknesses; the ability to articulate, critique, revise, and defend their own ideas and those of others in constructive ways; the ability to work effectively and respectfully both individually and in groups.

Classical Languages

Students graduating with a Classical Languages major from Agnes Scott College will demonstrate:

  • Advanced competence in one classical language and competence in the other, with appropriate use of resources such as grammars, dictionaries, and commentaries, both print and web-based. This competence includes the ability to translate texts and situate them within their literary and historical contexts, both in writing and speaking.
  • Concise and thoughtful presentation both orally and in writing of literary and historical analysis. This includes identifying primary sources of information about Greece and Rome, recognizing and articulating the challenges of using these sources, accurately describing the contributions of other scholars, and integrating their perspectives as appropriate into one’s own original research.
  • General knowledge of the intellectual, cultural, historical, and political developments of Greece and/or Rome, their roles in creating a “globalized” society, and their contributions to ancient and modern social constructions, especially of race, class, and gender.
  • Awareness of their own intellectual process, strengths, and weaknesses; the ability to articulate, critique, revise, and defend their own ideas and those of others in constructive ways; the ability to work effectively and respectfully both individually and in groups.

Dance

Students graduating with a Dance major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a physical and conceptual understanding of dance techniques, concepts, artistry and terminology and apply them in performance;
  • demonstrate dance literacy, which includes the ability to use Labanotation and analysis;
  • demonstrate command of the choreographic tools necessary to creating and directing their own work;
  • demonstrate a kinesthetic awareness of how to use the body as an instrument in creating expressive and unique movements through improvisation;
  • demonstrate compositional elements such as space, time, energy and intent in the creation of a piece of choreography;
  • demonstrate advanced concepts of composition such as ABA, rondo, canon, theme and variation, and use of site-specific choreography;
  • critically analyze the elements of a dance performance or production.

Economics

Students graduating with an Economics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • identify the role of supply and demand in a market economy and the necessary conditions for market economies to function well;
  • discuss the advantages and limitations of a market system and the role of prices in achieving efficiency;
  • have a working understanding of regulatory, fiscal and monetary policy;
  • identify policy options and assess the likelihood they would improve economic growth and efficiency;
  • apply economic theory to a range of economic problems and effectively communicate her analysis;
  • demonstrate the ability to define and analyze economic problems using graphical, algebraic and statistical methods;
  • identify the benefits and costs of a global economy;
  • undertake basic research, including conducting a survey of the literature, gathering and analyzing data, interpreting results, and drawing policy implications.

English-Literature

Students graduating with an English Literature major from Anges Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of major and significant texts and traditions of literature written in English;
  • analyze literary works and movements demonstrating knowledge of style, language, conventions, and historical, social, and cultural context;
  • evaluate works of literary criticism and theory and employ them in then analysis of literature;
  • construct thoughtful, well-researched, and original interpretations and arguments about literature and its contexts in written and oral forms;
  • apply understanding and knowledge gained from the study of literature to other disciplines, problems, and contexts.

English-Creative Writing

In addition to the outcomes noted in the English literature section, Students graduating with an English Literature-Creative Writing major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • analyze and interpret works from at least two creative genres (poetry, fiction, nonfiction, and dramatic writing) with an understanding of process, language, and form;
  • engage in a creative process that incorporates research, revision, and attention to form, audience, language, and context;
  • write with insight, proficiency and originality in at least two creative genres (poetry, fiction, nonfiction, and dramatic writing);
  • respond to peers’ creative works with thoughtful criticism that supports the writer’s process of revision; incorporate thoughtful criticism in the process of revising creative work;
  • apply understanding and knowledge gained from the study of creative writing to other disciplines, problems, and contexts.

French

Students graduating with a French major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a broad view of the literatures and cultures of the Francophone world including France and other French speaking regions;
  • demonstrate advanced skills in literary and cultural analysis;
  • demonstrate advanced and effective writing skills;
  • demonstrate advanced and effective listening and speaking skills.

German Studies

Students graduating with a German major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate advanced and effective skills in writing, reading, and speaking German;
  • demonstrate knowledge of the culture(s) of German-speaking countries;
  • engage at an advanced level with cultural, historical, and socio-political topics as they relate to the German-speaking countries;
  • demonstrate knowledge of methods and approaches of current interdisciplinary research in German Studies.

History

Students graduating with a History major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • seek, find, evaluate and utilize primary sources and secondary historical literature;
  • develop and articulate persuasive arguments based in historical evidence both orally and in written work;
  • apply knowledge and critical interpretation of the past to an understanding of crucial aspects of one’s own cultural and historical background, as well as the backgrounds of others;
  • describe and analyze current developments within historical contexts;
  • apply the results of research, writing and speaking experiences within the major, along with experiential learning and career investigation opportunities (internships, externships, seminars or workshops conducted by history faculty and alumnae) to career planning and graduate school and job applications.

International Relations

Students graduating with an International Relations major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • understand the evolution of major concepts of international relations and how they are contested/debated within the discipline. These concepts (though not exhaustive) include globalization, interdependence and dependence, power, hegemony, conflict, cooperation, equality, justice, and human rights;
  • understand and evaluate the major theories and approaches to international relations, including realism, liberalism, constructivism, Marxism, feminism, and post-colonialism and use the theories to explain, analyze, and predict events in the international system;
  • identify and explain the [changing] roles of key actors in the international system including states, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational networks, transnational corporations, global civil society, and individuals in creating and shaping international relations;
  • analyze international relations topics through the use of international relations theory in conjunction with other related and important fields including history, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, women's studies, and cultural studies;
  • demonstrate strong reading and analytical skills in engaging with theoretical and popular writing in international relations;
  • write well-organized, persuasive, and original essays and research papers, using appropriate citations;
  • participate actively and thoughtfully in class discussions;
  • demonstrate progress in speaking a second language and in linking cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity to learning in the international relations major.

Mathematics

Students graduating with a Mathematics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the abstract nature of theoretical mathematics by working with abstract concepts and constructing proofs;
  • exhibit proficiency in the computational techniques of calculus and linear algebra;
  • demonstrate skills in problem analysis and problem solving, both individually and collaboratively;
  • use mathematics as a tool for solving real-world problems;
  • demonstrate the ability to use technology wisely, adapt to new forms of technology, and make use of technology as a tool and expression of their mathematical ability.

Mathematics-Economics

Students graduating with a Mathematics-Economics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the abstract nature of theoretical mathematics by working with abstract concepts and constructing proofs;
  • exhibit proficiency in the computational techniques of calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra;
  • demonstrate skills in problem analysis and problem solving, both individually and collaboratively;
  • use mathematics as a tool for solving economic problems;
  • demonstrate the ability to use technology wisely, adapt to new forms of technology, and make use of technology as a tool and expression of their mathematical ability;
  • understand and apply the basic principles of micro- and macro-economics;
  • understand, formulate, and evaluate economic models.

Mathematics-Physics

Students graduating with a Mathematics-Physics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the abstract nature of theoretical mathematics by working with abstract concepts and constructing proofs;
  • exhibit proficiency in the computational techniques of calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra;
  • demonstrate skills in problem analysis and problem solving, both individually and collaboratively;
  • use mathematics as a tool for solving problems modeling physical situations;
  • demonstrate the ability to use technology wisely, adapt to new forms of technology, and make use of technology as a tool and expression of their mathematical ability;
  • understand and apply the basic laws of physics;
  • design experiments and collect and analyze data.

Music

Students graduating with a Music major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • apply the critical listening skills, leadership, and personal responsibility necessary to collaborate with others in performance;
  • practice her voice or instrument effectively in order to improve specific areas of musicianship, including setting goals, isolating musical passages, learning to properly use a metronome, and working with a sense of purpose;
  • evaluate technical and interpretative elements of other performers in live and mediated musical settings;
  • compare and contrast, as well as perform, diverse repertoire appropriate to the student’s individual ability;
  • overcome obstacles that impede artistic and technical development;
  • experience the sense of accomplishment that comes with setting a performance goal and achieving it;
  • collaborate with other musicians in performance;
  • connect the history of music to the performance of music;
  • demonstrate in written and oral forms knowledge about western art music from different historical eras, including major figures, representative works, style characteristics and forms, and the social, cultural, and political significance of music;
  • demonstrate in written and oral forms knowledge about music from different traditions around the world, including its commercial, historical, political, ritual, martial, and other sources of significance;
  • apply various methods of research and information gathering, and effectively communicate the results in various oral and written forms;
  • grasp music’s role as fundamentally relevant to human life across the globe, and think critically about its meaning in our own lives and in the lives of others.

Neuroscience

Students graduating with a Neuroscience major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a basic understanding of the structure and function of the nervous system at various levels of organization;
  • understand the research methods used in neuroscience and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the research techniques;
  • demonstrate an understanding of research design, data analysis, and critical thinking;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the ethical issues surrounding neuro-scientific research on human and animal models;
  • critically evaluate scientific literature;
  • present their research findings to their peers.

Philosophy

Students graduating with a Philosophy major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • explain the main positions, arguments, principles, and theories of major figures in the history of philosophy (such as Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes, Hume, Kant, Mill, and Rawls), as well as main features and tenets of important movements in the history of philosophy (such as Greek eudaimonism, Roman Stoicism, German rationalism, British empiricism, and contemporary contractarianism);
  • explain the most influential and important positions, arguments, principles, theories, and movements within the major systematic areas of philosophy, such as metaphysics, epistemology, logic, and ethics;
  • identify the thesis (or conclusion) and main argument in a philosophical text;
  • sketch or reconstruct an argument and analyze and evaluate an argument in a philosophical text;
  • distinguish valid from invalid arguments, strong from weak arguments, sound from unsound arguments;
  • use correct inference rules in arguments;
  • recognize, compare, and assess arguments for competing positions;
  • generate, compare, and assess various solutions to philosophical problems;
  • construct their own philosophical arguments;
  • present and argue for their own theses in philosophy papers;
  • explain the views and theories of others accurately, fairly, and completely;
  • raise and respond to objections in clear and systematic ways;
  • demonstrate an understanding of how philosophy illuminates and provides tools for addressing the major social and moral problems of our time.

Physics

Students graduating with a Physics major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • solve fundamental problems of classical and modern physics, using the necessary mathematical skills;
  • write basic computer programs as well as employ scientific software and data visualization tools;
  • conduct laboratory experiments using modern instrumentation, computers and/or simulations;
  • retrieve, organize and analyze scientific information in tabular and graphical formats;
  • develop an approach to solving unknown problems, using principles and tools learned in mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, optics, nuclear physics, relativity and electromagnetism;
  • present scientific results, including their historical contexts, in clear written and oral language.

Political Science

Students graduating with a Political Science major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • understand the way political science works as a discipline: how it structures its research about political issues, and how it works with and among contested explanations about politics;
  • be not only familiar but also competent in working with the major broad approaches used in the discipline, including behavioralism, critical theory, comparative analysis, and discourse analysis;
  • identify and explain the way political actors, ideas, and movements shape political life;
  • participate in some kind of activity related to politics, broadly defined.

Psychology

Students graduating with a Psychology major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical trends in psychology;
  • understand and apply psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues;
  • understand and apply basic research methods in psychology, including research design, data analysis, and interpretation;
  • respect and use critical and creative thinking, skeptical inquiry, and when possible, the scientific approach to solve problems related to behavior and mental processes;
  • weigh evidence, tolerate ambiguity, act ethically, and reflect other values that are the underpinnings of psychology as a discipline.

Public Health

Students graduating with a Public Health major from Agnes Scott College will have:

  • Critical understanding of historical and contemporary public health trends and approaches
    • Understands history of public health
    • Articulates current public health paradigms and approaches
  • Understanding of the subdisciplines of public health: epidemiology, statistics, social and behavioral sciences, global health, environmental health, health law and policy
    • Understands approach and scope of public health subdisciplines
    • Articulates points of intersection of subdisciplines
  • Recognition of the cross-cultural variation in views of health and the structures of health systems
    • Articulates and understands rationale behind WHO definition of health
    • Critically compares diverse definitions of health across cultures
    • Describes key models of health systems around the globe
  • Understanding of determinants of health, both biological and social, within a broad ecological framework and their impact on health outcomes
    • Understands biological determinants of disease for key global diseases
    • Articulates the concept of social determinants of health
    • Applies an ecological framework to investigating disease distribution
    • Applies critical theories and perspectives from the liberal arts to analyze public health issues (e.g. - biology, anthropology, sociology, economics, women’s studies, human rights)
  • Ability to explain and apply the intellectual and practical skills needed to design an intervention and develop a plan for evaluating an intervention
    • Conducts a literature review
    • Demonstrates digital literacy in obtaining information
    • Differentiates between types and sources of information with respect to quality, validity and reliability
    • Understands and implements principles of basic quantitative methods
    • Understands and implements principles of basic qualitative methods
    • Uses data to inform the design of creative interventions to address health problems
    • Identifies appropriate measures and methods for evaluating public health interventions

Religion and Social Justice

Students graduating with a Religion and Social Justice major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • recognize and work with a variety of power dynamics in and out of the classroom, including diversity both as it appears in the classroom and in complex cultures that we study between religions and amongst religions and the relationship between religion and issues of gender, sexual orientation, sexual identities, race, and class;
  • create questions about ethical and justice issues in historical and contemporary society and examine both personal and systemic roles in religious communities and political, cultural, and social settings;
  • propose, design, and create workshops and class activities about the theories of leadership for both the classroom and internship sites;
  • problem solve through debate and recognition of various points of view, including applying other disciplines’ points of view and practices; identifying and discussing major social issues and debating different points of view; recognizing and discussing issues across disciplinary boundaries and how those boundaries can interfere with or enhance their learning; identifying and reflecting upon their own social locations through autoethnography and other tools; developing civil conversation around issues; reflecting critically and assessing personal and systemic issues and imagine possibilities for social change and transformation; engaging in comparative religion; discussing ethical issues and the perspectives that religions have brought to bear on them; working collectively on challenging real world problems in a topic area; applying their knowledge and skills to a broad range of post-college experiences;
  • improve their research skills in order to formulate research questions and answer them; develop theories and methodologies for their research; apply other disciplines’ points of view and practices; engage in comparative religion; evaluate ethical issues and the perspectives that religions have brought to bear on them.

Religious Studies

Students graduating with a Religious Studies major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • recognize, articulate, explain, compare and contrast, analyze, critique, and assess core doctrines, institutions, historical contexts, traditions, and practices of major religions of the world; issues of religion and social justice and how they impact women’s lives; how religions have been the basis for both oppressive and liberating human practices throughout history; the similarities and differences between the soteriological and eschatological aims and practices of different religions; the relevance of religion in contemporary world events and cultural studies; major social justice theories and issues locally and globally in a human rights framework;
  • recognize and work with a variety of power dynamics in and out of the classroom, including diversity both as it appears in the classroom and in complex cultures that we study between religions and amongst religions and the relationship between religion and issues of gender, sexual orientation, sexual identities, race, and class;
  • create questions about ethical and justice issues in historical and contemporary society and examine both personal and systemic roles in religious communities and political, cultural, and social settings;
  • propose, design, and create workshops and class activities about the theories of leadership for both the classroom and internship sites;
  • improve their research skills in order to formulate research questions and answer them; develop theories and methodologies for their research; apply other disciplines’ points of view and practices; engage in comparative religion; evaluate ethical issues and the perspectives that religions have brought to bear on them.

Sociology and Anthropology

Students graduating with a Sociology and Anthropology major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • think critically by incorporating different theoretical approaches in interpreting social-cultural phenomena;
  • demonstrate understanding of and appreciation for cultural and other diversities;
  • demonstrate understanding of the relations between micro- and macro-level phenomena (face-to-face interactions, institutional structures, globalization, etc.);
  • demonstrate understanding of human inequalities (including race, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, national, and ability, among others);
  • effectively collect, analyze and present research data.

Spanish

Students graduating with a Spanish major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a broad view of the literatures and cultures of Spain, some Latin American countries and U.S. Latino communities;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the situation of selected marginalized social groups;
  • demonstrate advanced skills in literary and cultural analysis;
  • demonstrate advanced and effective writing skills;
  • demonstrate advanced and effective listening and speaking skills.

Theatre

Students graduating with a Theatre major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate a conceptual understanding of acting, directing, dramatic writing and theatrical design;
  • demonstrate the ability to apply skills drawn from a study of acting, directing, dramatic writing and theatrical design to practical settings;
  • demonstrate an ability to compare personal, political or cultural perspectives through the analysis of varied forms of theatrical creation.

Women's Studies

Students graduating with a Women’s Studies major from Agnes Scott College will be able to:

  • demonstrate knowledge of basic feminist ideas/analyses, which necessarily includes analysis of not only gender, but race/ethnicity, class, sexuality, nationality, and ability;
  • demonstrate understanding of the multi-racial, multi-ethnic and global nature of feminism;
  • demonstrate understanding of the relationship between feminist practice and feminist theory;
  • demonstrate understanding of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary nature of WS;
  • demonstrate advanced knowledge in Women’s Studies.